Quality parameters

Quality parameters of loamy raw material from "Gościniec" deposit
(according to geological documentation)

Macroscopic description clays and loamy mudstones of dark red-brown colour
Stratigraphy lower trias (middle mottled sandstone)
Granulometric composition *
>50?m (0.05 mm) 0.0 - 11.0% on average up to do 1%
>20?m (0.02 mm) 8.5 - 15.2% **
>2?m (0.002 mm) 22.0 - 55.0% on average up to 35 - 45%
>2?m (0.002 mm) 34.2 - 41.9% on average up to 38 - 40%
Mineral composition
Loamy minerals easily fusible
44 - 56% ***
10 - 19%, on average up to 10 - 14%
kaolinite 11 - 15%
quartz 27 - 33%
feldspar 2 - 3%
hematite ca 3%
calcite + dolomite 0%
Chemical composition
SiO2 60.91 - 64.12%
Al2O3 17.76 - 17.95%
Fe2O3 6.91 - 7.77%
TiO2 0.90 - 1.03%
MnO 0.04 - 0.17%
MgO 1.82 - 2.90%
CaO 0.39 - 0.54%
K2O 2.55 - 3.00%
Ignition loss (105 - 1 000°C) 5.12 - 5.21%
Technological parameters
Natural humidity maximum 14 %
Make-up water 14.94 - 26.75%, on average 20.87%
Drying contraction 5.10 - 9.40%, on average 6.90%
Total contraction (1000°C) 5.10 - 9.40%, on average 6.90%
(1050°C) 5.10 - 9.40%, on average 6.90%
Weight absorbability (1000°C) 5.10 - 9.40%, on average 6.90%
(1050°C) 5.10 - 9.40%, on average 6.90%
Compression strength (1000°C) 5.10 - 9.40%, on average 6.90%
(1050°C) 5.10 - 9.40%, on average 6.90%
Contents and harmfulness of marl 0 (lack of symptoms)
Tendency to efflorescence appearance none
Notice Occasional appearance of sandstone bits ? > 50 mm is admissable
* results of some samples, with bits of mudstone, were not included
** marking specific only for some samples examined using laser analyser
*** illite, smectite and mixed illite-chlorite-smectite package

The results of researches of averaging sample of excavated raw material
(according to rhe researches of prof. P.Wyszomirskiego from AGH University of Science and Technology)

Zestawienie właściwości surowca

Parameter Sample Value
SiO2 [%] 60.73
Al2O3 [%] 18.24
Fe2O3 [%] 7.54
MnO [%] 0.036
MgO [%] 1.88
CaO [%] 0.35
Na2O [%] 0.09
K2O [%] 3.01
TiO2 [%] 0.901
P2O5 [%] 0.07
Ignition loss [%] 7.10
Specific surface [m2/g] 20.75
Helium density [g/cm3] 2.750
Sintering temperature [°C] 1110
Softening temperature [°C] 1440
Melting temperature [°C] 1550
Flow temperature [°C] 1590
Drying contraction [%] 7.07
After drying bending strength [MPa] 0.88

Basic technological qualities of fired material

Firing temperature [°C] 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250
After drying bending strength [MPa] 3.01 2.66 5.20 10.21 9.99 8.44 8.78
Firing contraction [%] 3.08 3.77 4.69 8.34 8.46 8.43 8.39
Total contraction [%] 10.13 10.85 11.76 15.41 15.53 15.50 15.46
Absorbability [%] 11.57 11.10 7.37 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.0
Open porosity [%] 23.4 23.0 16.8 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.0
Apparent density [g/cm3] 2.08 2.11 2.28 2.62 2.65 2.58 2.55
Compression strength, Rc [Mpa] 5.4 9.6 22.1 32.1 37.0 38.7 30.6
Freeze resistance - After 75 cycles samples cracked - After 100 cycles lack of cracks and splinters - After 100 cycles lack of cracks and splinters -
Sulfate efflorescence Lack of sulfate efflorescences and blooms