Pałęgi deposit

"Pałęgi" deposit is built of lower trias (middle mottled sandstone) clays and mudstones, of colour from dark red to dark brown with willow-green spots and streaks. Resources of the deposit are, according to the state in 2006, about 6 mln of tons, what would allow, at annual exploitation level reaching 70-140 thousand of tons, to run exploitation for over 50 years.

The mineral from the deposit is of illite character with subordinate participation of chlorite and kaolinite but also with mixed-package clayey minerals - I/S and Ch/S. Non-clayey minerals are represented by quartz and hematite . These minerals are pure - they do not include marl or soluble sulphurous.

Ceramic qualities of the mineral are determined by relative values of make-up water (mostly reaching the level of 20 - 23 %) and drying out contractility (mostly reaching the level of 6 - 7.5 %, average 6.92 %). When mixed with water ceramic blocks can be easily shaped, not showing tendencies to change shapes or crack during drying process. Fired at temp. from 900 to 1050°C material acquires beautiful colour from brick-red to deep brown and favourable physical properties - absorbability, freeze resistance and compression strength (raw material parameters).

While burning at relatively low temperatures of 1050 -1070°C, material's absorbability is lower than < 6 % (sinter). Good quality of sintering is obtained thanks to both content of fluxing agents (mainly Fe2O3), and potassium abounding minerals belonging to micas group. While burning, thanks to their presence, glassy phase appears, which is responsible for condensation of ceramic body that significantly lowers its absorbability and increases its strength. Intensive sintering of ceramic body occurs at temp. 1100/1150 - 1200°C. Products obtained this way are completely freezeproof, of high mechanical strength.

Generally, grain composition, chemical and mineral constitution of sediments forming the deposit, but also physical qualities of the mineral, allow to characterize it as:
  • Lean raw material bordering on medium-plastic, not requiring significant addition of leaning materials,
  • Little susceptible to drying, can be easily formed using plastic or half-dry method,
  • Practically it does not contain carbonate , whereas it proves high content of Fe2O3 - red-firing,,
  • Well sintering, of very good qualities to produce clinker articles.